By Lev Luis Grinberg
By Joseph Heller
By Gary Samore
The danger that Iran will collect a nuclear guns strength poses an important danger to the steadiness of the center East and a possible problem to the long term viability of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. considering the fact that 2003, diplomatic efforts by way of the EU-3 (United nation, France and Germany) have succeeded in postponing the delicate elements of Iran’s nuclear programme, yet customers for achieving an enduring contract with the Iranian govt are doubtful. If the EU-3 attempt collapses, a few coverage ideas may be given extra severe attention, together with sanctions, containment, regime swap and army action.
This IISS ‘Strategic file’ on Iran’s strategic guns programmes offers an aim technical review of Iran’s nuclear, chemical, and organic guns services, in addition to its ballistic missile programme. The file evaluates what's recognized and what's now not identified approximately those functions and tasks power destiny advancements. moreover, the file offers a historical past of democratic efforts over the past 3 a long time, to avoid Iran from buying a nuclear guns potential and examines diversified strategies for present diplomatic efforts. each one bankruptcy has been written and reviewed via regarded overseas specialists of their respective fields.
The IISS doesn't recommend any specific coverage choice for facing the Iranian nuclear factor. the target of Iran’s Strategic guns Programmes: A web evaluate is to evaluate, as appropriately and dispassionately as attainable, Iran’s services and assessment the professionals and cons of alternative coverage recommendations within the order to foster a well-informed coverage debate.
By Gary Leiser
By Michel Boivin
By Richard Foltz
From the institution of the Pahlavi dynasty by means of Reza Shah in 1925 till the 1979 revolution lower than the charismatic management of Ayatollah Khomeini, Iran launched into a modernization method that ended in the unfold of literacy and the expansion of the women's stream, making it some of the most complex countries within the constructing international. loss of political freedoms has persevered to frustrate many Iranians, even though, and the rustic is frequently noticeable as a world pariah within the West. Iran at the present time is never handled good in Western information headlines, regardless of striking achievements through person Iranians in quite a lot of fields. Encompassing faith, literature, the humanities, and politics, Iran in international History bargains a finished historical past of 1 of the world's such a lot influential civilizations and provides nuanced examples of its carrying on with function on the planet today.
By Rashid Khalidi,Lisa Anderson,Muhammad Muslih,Reeva Simon
Contributors, together with C. Ernest sunrise, Mahmoud Haddad, Reeva Simon, and Beth Baron, supply a large survey of the Arab international on the flip of the century, allowing a comparability of advancements in various settings from Syria and Egypt to the Hijaz, Libya, and Iraq.
By Massimiliano Fiore
By Howard R. Turner
By Ze'ev Almog